Until the end of the 19th century, type was set for printing by hand - a slow process, which, for example, limited newspapers to eight pages. The Linotype (1886) was the first "line casting" machine and here are three examples from the National Museum of the Printing Press in Porto. The machine hanging outside the museum may be a Linotype - I couldn't see any identification; that on the right is a Typograph, the main advantage of which was that it was cheaper than the Linotype; while that at the bottom of the collage is an Intertype (1917). These machine were widely used in the printing industry right around the world until the 1970s and 1980s when lithographic printing and computer composition began to replace them.
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